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There is a special article on each of the religious orders, saints, and artists mentioned in this article, while the details of the papal administration, both spiritual and temporal, will be found treated under APOSTOLIC CAMERA ; PONTIFICAL AUDIENCES ; APOSTOLIC EXAMINERS ; HOLY SEE ; PAPAL RESCRIPTS ; ROMAN CONGREGATIONS ; ROMAN CURIA ; SACRA ROMANA ROTA ; STATES OF THE CHURCH, etc. It occupies, on the left bank, not only the plain, but also the adjacent heights, namely, portions of the Parioli hills, of the Pincian, the Quirinal, the Viminal, the Esquiline (which are only the extremities of a mountain-mass of tufa extending to the Alban hills), the Capitoline, the Cælian, the Palatine, and the Aventine -- hills which are now isolated.Of the great Christian monuments of the Eternal City, special articles are devoted to BASILICA OF ST. PETER ; LATERAN BASILICA ; VATICAN ; CHAIR OF PETER . On the right bank is the valley lying beneath Monte Mario the Vatican, and the Janiculan, the last-named of which has now become covered with houses and gardens.

The boundaries of the parishes have been radically changed by Pius X, to meet new needs arising out of topographical changes.Christian doctrine is taught both in the day and night schools which are dependent either on the Holy See, or on religious congregations or Catholic associations.For those who attend the public elementary schools, parochial catechism is provided on Sunday and feast-day afternoons.The present article will be divided: The City of Rome rises on the banks of the Tiber at a distance of from 16 to 19 miles from the mouth of that river, which makes a deep furrow in the plain which extends between the Alban hills, to the south; the hills of Palestrina and Tivoli, and the Sabine hills, to the east: and the Umbrian hills and Monte Tolfa, to the north. The Tiber, traversing the city, forms two sharp bends and an island (S.Bartolomeo), and within the city its banks are protected by the strong and lofty walls which were begun in 1875. Navigation on the river is practicable only for vessels of light draught, which anchor at Ripa Grande, taking cargoes of oil and other commodities.Many details concerning Rome have been set forth in other articles of THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA.

For the prerogatives of the papacy the reader is referred to POPE ; for the ecclesiastical government of the city and diocese, to CARDINAL VICAR ; for liturgical matters, to ROMAN RITE ; for education, to ROMAN COLLEGES ; for literary development, to ROMAN ACADEMIES ; for history, to the biographical articles on the various popes, and the articles CONSTANTINE THE GREAT, CHARLEMAGNE, etc.

Lucia del Gonfalone and others like it, for giving dowries to poor young women of good character ; the Confraternità della Morte, for burying those who die in the country districts, and various confraternities for escorting funerals, of which the principal one is that of the Sacconi; that of S.

Giovanni Decollato, to assist persons condemned to death ), or again they have some purely devotional aim, like the Confraternities of the Blessed Sacrament, of the Christian Doctrine, of the various mysteries of religion, and of certain saints.

It is here that the history of the Church can be traced from the earliest days, from the humble beginnings in the Catacombs to the majestic ritual of St. At every turn one comes upon places hallowed by the deaths of the martyrs, the lives of innumerable saints, the memories of wise and holy pontiffs.

From Rome the bearers of the Gospel message went out to the peoples of Europe and eventually to the uttermost ends of the earth.

In each parish there is a parochial committee for Catholic works; each has its various confraternities, many of which have their own church and oratory.