The math behind radioactive carbon dating
Extensive climate change is now affecting every form of life in the Arctic, according to a major new assessment by international polar scientists.In the past four years, air temperatures have increased, sea ice has declined sharply, surface waters in the Arctic ocean have warmed and permafrost is in some areas rapidly thawing.
These are by far the most numerous, and account for most of those whose comments will follow this post. Denial is most people's first response to something they don't want to hear, whether it is a diagnosis of terminal illness or the threat presented by the rise of the Axis Powers.Interview: In a new book, The Global Deal, Stern builds on his earlier work to offer a blueprint for a safer planet, laying out the specific steps that individuals, communities, companies, and nations need to take -- without delay -- to reduce emissions and head off the very worst consequences of catastrophic climate change.As the title suggests, the challenge demands international cooperation on a scale rarely, if ever before, achieved, but he's optimistic a global deal can be reached, if only because the stakes are so high, the alternative so grim, and the prize -- a secure planet on a sustainable path to prosperity -- so great.The climate situation may be even worse than you think.In the first of three features, Richard Monastersky looks at evidence that keeping carbon dioxide beneath dangerous levels is tougher than previously thought.Asked by MPs on the committee whether the European Emissions Trading scheme was insufficient to meet these targets, Humphrey Cadoux-Hudson, managing director of new nuclear build at EDF, agreed.
Schemes to reflect sun or absorb CO2 warrant study - to sort the real science from the science fiction Emissions of carbon dioxide are rising even faster than was expected, and if they continue to do so we are on track for global temperatures which are likely to be 4C higher, or even more, by 2100, with disastrous consequences.
Carbon Taxes will stop working after a few years, and Carbon Caps are already strongly resisted.
As for Carbon Trading, the incentive to cheat, the “leakage”, will mean that most exchanges will be measured in “hot air” - virtual Carbon emissions.
In addition, says the report released today at a Norwegian government seminar, plants and trees are growing more vigorously, snow cover is decreasing 1-2% a year and glaciers are shrinking.
Scientists from Norway, Canada, Russia and the US contributed to the Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (Amap) study, which says new factors such as "black carbon" – soot – ozone and methane may now be contributing to global and arctic warming as much as carbon dioxide.
In a world were consumption becomes more calculated, the value of design is critical.