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meaning "town on the Monnow") is the historic county town of Monmouthshire, Wales.
Monmouth later became a tourist centre at the heart of the Wye Valley, as well as a market town.The town is 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Cardiff, and 113 miles (182 km) west of London.It is within the Monmouthshire local authority, and the parliamentary constituency of Monmouth.In 1056, the area was devastated by the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, on his way with an army of Welsh, Saxons and Danes to defeat Ralph, Earl of Hereford and sack the Saxon burh at Hereford, 18 miles (29 km) to the north.Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the earldom of Hereford was given to William fitz Osbern of Breteuil, Normandy, one of King William's closest allies, who was responsible for defending the area against the Welsh.Archaeologists have found Roman pottery and coins within the modern town centre.
During the later Roman period, between the 2nd and late 4th centuries, it appears to have been a centre for iron working, using the local iron ores and charcoal also worked at nearby Gobannium (Abergavenny) and Ariconium (near Ross-on-Wye).
The first recorded settlement at Monmouth was the small Roman fort of Blestium, one of a network of military bases established on the frontiers of the Roman occupation.
This was connected by road to the larger Roman towns at Glevum (Gloucester) and Isca Augusta (Caerleon).
Monmouth's population in the 2011 census was 10,508, rising from 8,877 in 2001.
The town was the site of a small Roman fort, Blestium, and became established after the Normans built a castle here after 1067.
After the end of Roman rule in Britain, the area was at the southern edge of the Welsh kingdom of Ergyng.